ef_cetesb returns a vector or data.frame of Brazilian emission factors.

ef_cetesb(
  p,
  veh,
  year = 2017,
  agemax = 40,
  scale = "default",
  sppm,
  full = FALSE,
  project = "constant",
  verbose = FALSE,
  csv
)

Arguments

p

Character;

Pollutants: "CO", "HC", "NMHC", "CH4", "NOx", "CO2", "RCHO" (aldehydes + formaldehyde), "ETOH", "PM", "N2O", "KML", "FC", "NO2", "NO", "gD/KWH", "gCO2/KWH", "RCHO_0km" (aldehydes + formaldehyde), "CO_0km", "HC_0km", "NMHC_0km", "NOx_0km", "NO2_0km" ,"NO_0km", "RCHO_0km" and "ETOH_0km", "FS" (fuel sales) (g/km). If scale = "tunnel" is used, there is also "ALD" for aldehydes and "HCHO" for formaldehydes Evaporative emissions at average temperature ranges: "D_20_35", "S_20_35", "R_20_35", "D_10_25", "S_10_25", "R_10_25", "D_0_15", "S_0_15" and "R_0_15" where D means diurnal (g/day), S hot/warm soak (g/trip) and R hot/warm running losses (g/trip).

veh

Character; Vehicle categories: "PC_G", "PC_FG", "PC_FE", "PC_E", "LCV_G", "LCV_FG", "LCV_FE", "LCV_E", "LCV_D", "TRUCKS_SL", "TRUCKS_L", "TRUCKS_M", "TRUCKS_SH", "TRUCKS_H", "BUS_URBAN", "BUS_MICRO", "BUS_COACH", "BUS_ARTIC", "MC_G_150", "MC_G_150_500", "MC_G_500", "MC_FG_150", "MC_FG_150_500", "MC_FG_500", "MC_FE_150", "MC_FE_150_500", "MC_FE_500" "CICLOMOTOR", "GNV"

year

Numeric; Filter the emission factor to start from a specific base year. If project is 'constant' values above 2017 and below 1980 will be repeated

agemax

Integer; age of oldest vehicles for that category

scale

Character; values "default" or "tunnel". If "tunnel", emission factors are scaled to represent EF measurements in tunnels in Sao Paulo

sppm

Numeric, sulfur (sulphur) in ppm in fuel.

full

Logical; To return a data.frame instead or a vector adding Age, Year, Brazilian emissions standards and its euro equivalents.

project

Character showing the method for projecting emission factors in future. Currently the only value is "constant"

verbose

Logical; To show more information

csv

String with the path to download the ef in a .csv file. For instance, ef.csv

Value

A vector of Emission Factor or a data.frame

Note

The new convention for vehicles names are translated from CETESB report:

vehdescription
PC_GPassenger Car Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
PC_EPassenger Car Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
PC_FGPassenger Car Flex Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
PC_FEPassenger Car Flex Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
LCV_GLight Commercial Vehicle Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
LCV_ELight Commercial Vehicle Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
LCV_FGLight Commercial Vehicle Flex Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
LCV_FELight Commercial Vehicle Flex Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
LCV_DLight Commercial Vehicle Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
TRUCKS_SL_DTrucks Semi Light Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
TRUCKS_L_DTrucks Light Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
TRUCKS_M_DTrucks Medium Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
TRUCKS_SH_DTrucks Semi Heavy Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
TRUCKS_H_DTrucks Heavy Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
BUS_URBAN_DUrban Bus Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
BUS_MICRO_DMicro Urban Bus Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
BUS_COACH_DCoach (inter-state) Bus Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
BUS_ARTIC_DArticulated Urban Bus Diesel (5perc bio-diesel)
MC_150_GMotorcycle engine less than 150cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_150_500_GMotorcycle engine 150-500cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_500_GMotorcycle greater than 500cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_150_FGFlex Motorcycle engine less than 150cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_150_500_FGFlex Motorcycle engine 150-500cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_500_FGFlex Motorcycle greater than 500cc Gasohol (Gasoline + 27perc of anhydrous ethanol)
MC_150_FEFlex Motorcycle engine less than 150cc Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
MC_150_500_FEFlex Motorcycle engine 150-500cc Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
MC_500_FEFlex Motorcycle greater than 500cc Ethanol (hydrous ethanol)
PC_ELECPassenger Car Electric
LCV_ELECLight Commercial Vehicle Electric

The percentage varies of biofuels varies by law.

This emission factors are not exactly the same as the report of CETESB.

1) In this emission factors, there is also NO and NO2 based on split by published in the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

2) Also, the emission factors were extended till 50 years of use, repeating the oldest value.

3) CNG emission factors were expanded to other pollutants by comparison of US.EPA-AP42 emission factor: Section 1.4 Natural Gas Combustion.

In the previous versions I used the letter 'd' for deteriorated. I removed the letter 'd' internally to not break older code.

If by mistake, the user inputs one of veh names from the old convention, they are internally changed to the new convention: "SLT", "LT", "MT", "SHT","HT", "UB", "SUB", "COACH", "ARTIC", "M_G_150", "M_G_150_500", "M_G_500", "M_FG_150", "M_FG_150_500", "M_FG_500", "M_FE_150", "M_FE_150_500","M_FE_500",

If pollutant is "SO2", it needs sppm. It is designed when veh has length 1, if it has length 2 or more, it will show a warning

Emission factor for vehicles older than the reported by CETESB were filled as the moving average of 2:

  • Range EF from PC and LCV otto: 2018 - 1982. EF for 1981 and older as moving average.

  • Range LCV diesel : 2018 - 2006. EF for 2005 and older as moving average.

  • Range Trucks and Buse: 2018 - 1998. EF for 1997 and older as moving average.

  • Range MC Gasoline: 2018 - 2003. EF for 2002 and older as moving average.

  • Range MC Flex 150-500cc and >500cc: 2018 - 2012. EF for 2011 and older as moving average.

Currently, 2020, there are not any system for recovery of fuel vapors in Brazil. Hence, the FS takes into account the vapour that comes from the fuel tank inside the car and released into the atmosphere when injecting new fuel. There are discussions about incrementing implementing stage I and II and/or ORVR thesedays. The ef FS is calculated by transforming g FC/km into (L/KM)*g/L with g/L 1.14 fgor gasoline and 0.37 for ethanol (CETESB, 2016). The density considered is 0.75425 for gasoline and 0.809 for ethanol (t/m^3)

CETESB emission factors did not cover evaporative emissions from motorcycles, which occure. Therefore, in the abscence of better data, it was assumed the same ratio from passenger cars.

Li, Lan, et al. "Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends." Science of the Total Environment 502 (2015): 627-631.

If scale is used with tunnel, the references are:

  • Pérez-Martinez, P. J., Miranda, R. M., Nogueira, T., Guardani, M. L., Fornaro, A., Ynoue, R., and Andrade, M. F. (2014). Emission factors of air pollutants from vehicles measured inside road tunnels in Sao Paulo: case study comparison. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(8), 2155-2168.

  • Nogueira, T., de Souza, K. F., Fornaro, A., de Fatima Andrade, M., and de Carvalho, L. R. F. (2015). On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Atmospheric Environment, 108, 88-97.

References

Emissoes Veiculares no Estado de Sao Paulo 2016. Technical Report. url: https://cetesb.sp.gov.br/veicular/relatorios-e-publicacoes/.

Examples

if (FALSE) { a <- ef_cetesb("CO", "PC_G") a <- ef_cetesb("R_10_25", "PC_G") a <- ef_cetesb("CO", c("PC_G", "PC_FE")) ef_cetesb(p = "CO", veh = "PC_G", year = 1970, agemax = 40) ef_cetesb(p = "CO", veh = "PC_G", year = 2030, agemax = 40) ef_cetesb(p = "CO", veh = "TRUCKS_L_D", year = 2018) ef_cetesb(p = "CO", veh = "SLT", year = 2018) # olds names ef_cetesb(p = "SO2", veh = "PC_G", year = 2030, agemax = 40, sppm = 300) ef_cetesb(p = "SO2", veh = "PC_FE", year = 2030, agemax = 40, sppm = 300) a <- ef_cetesb(p = "NMHC", veh = c("PC_G", "PC_FG", "PC_FE", "PC_E"), year = 2018, agemax = 20) colplot(a, main = "NMHC EF", ylab = "[g/km]", xlab = "Years of use") ef_cetesb(p = "CO", veh = "PC_ELEC", year = 1970, agemax = 40) }