speciate separates emissions in different compounds. It covers black carbon and organic matter from particulate matter. Soon it will be added more speciations

speciate(x, spec = "bcom", veh, fuel, eu, show = FALSE, list = FALSE, pmpar)

Arguments

x

Emissions estimation

spec

speciation: The speciations are: "bcom", "tyre" (or "tire"), "brake", "road", "iag", "iag-tunnel","pmiag", "pmiag-tunnel", "nox", "nmhc". 'iag' now includes a speciation for use of industrial and building paintings. "bcom" stands for black carbon and organic matter. "pmiag" speciates PM2.5 and requires only argument x of PM2.5 emissions in g/h/km^2 as gridded emissions (flux). It also accepts one of the following pollutants: 'e_eth', 'e_hc3', 'e_hc5', 'e_hc8', 'e_ol2', 'e_olt', 'e_oli', 'e_iso', 'e_tol', 'e_xyl', 'e_c2h5oh', 'e_hcho', 'e_ch3oh', 'e_ket', "e_so4i", "e_so4j", "e_no3i", "e_no3j", "e_pm2.5i", "e_pm2.5j", "e_orgi", "e_orgj", "e_eci", "e_ecj" and these pollutants with tunnel, e.g. "e_eth-tunnel".

veh

Type of vehicle: When spec is "bcom" or "nox" veh can be "PC", "LCV", HDV" or "Motorcycle". When spec is "iag" veh can take two values depending: when the speciation is for vehicles veh accepts "veh", eu "Evaporative", "Liquid" or "Exhaust" and fuel "G", "E" or "D", when the speciation is for painting, veh is "paint" fuel or eu can be "industrial" or "building" when spec is "nmhc", veh can be "LDV" with fuel "G" or "D" and eu "PRE", "I", "II", "III", "IV", "V", or "VI". when spec is "nmhc", veh can be "HDV" with fuel "D" and eu "PRE", "I", "II", "III", "IV", "V", or "VI". when spec is "nmhc" and fuel is "LPG", veh and eu must be "ALL"

fuel

Fuel. When spec is "bcom" fuel can be "G" or "D". When spec is "iag" fuel can be "G", "E" or "D". When spec is "nox" fuel can be "G", "D", "LPG", "E85" or "CNG". Not required for "tyre", "brake" or "road". When spec is "nmhc" fuel can be G, D or LPG.

eu

Euro emission standard: "PRE", "ECE_1501", "ECE_1502", "ECE_1503", "I", "II", "III", "IV", "V", "III-CDFP","IV-CDFP","V-CDFP", "III-ADFP", "IV-ADFP","V-ADFP" and "OPEN_LOOP". When spec is "iag" accept the values "Exhaust" "Evaporative" and "Liquid". When spec is "nox" eu can be "PRE", "I", "II", "III", "IV", "V", "VI", "VIc", "III-DPF" or "III+CRT". Not required for "tyre", "brake" or "road"

show

when TRUE shows row of table with respective speciation

list

when TRUE returns a list with number of elements of the list as the number species of pollutants

pmpar

Numeric vector for PM speciation eg: c(e_so4i = 0.0077, e_so4j = 0.0623, e_no3i = 0.00247, e_no3j = 0.01053, e_pm2.5i = 0.1, e_pm2.5j = 0.3, e_orgi = 0.0304, e_orgj = 0.1296, e_eci = 0.056, e_ecj = 0.024, h2o = 0.277) These are default values. however, when this argument is preseent, new values are used.

Value

dataframe of speciation in grams or mols

Note

when spec = "iag": veh is only "veh", fuel is "G" (blended with 25% ethanol), "D" (blended with 5% of biodiesel) or "E" (Ethanol 100%). eu is "Evaporative", "Liquid" or "Exhaust",

emissions of "pmiag" speciate pm2.5 into e_so4i, e_so4j, e_no3i, e_no3j, e_mp2.5i, e_mp2.5j, e_orgi, e_orgj, e_eci, e_ecj and h2o. Reference: Rafee, S.: Estudo numerico do impacto das emissoes veiculares e fixas da cidade de Manaus nas concentracoes de poluentes atmosfericos da regiao amazonica, Master thesis, Londrina: Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, 2015.

References

"bcom": Ntziachristos and Zamaras. 2016. Passneger cars, light commercial trucks, heavy-duty vehicles including buses and motor cycles. In: EEA, EMEP. EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook-2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2016

"tyre", "brake" and "road": Ntziachristos and Boulter 2016. Automobile tyre and brake wear and road abrasion. In: EEA, EMEP. EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook-2009. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, 2016

"iag": Ibarra-Espinosa S. Air pollution modeling in Sao Paulo using bottom-up vehicular emissions inventories. 2017. PhD thesis. Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, page 88. Speciate EPA: https://cfpub.epa.gov/speciate/. : K. Sexton, H. Westberg, "Ambient hydrocarbon and ozone measurements downwind of a large automotive painting plant" Environ. Sci. Tchnol. 14:329 (1980).P.A. Scheff, R.A. Schauer, James J., Kleeman, Mike J., Cass, Glen R., Characterization and Control of Organic Compounds Emitted from Air Pollution Sources, Final Report, Contract 93-329, prepared for California Air Resources Board Research Division, Sacramento, CA, April 1998. 2004 NPRI National Databases as of April 25, 2006, http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/npri_dat_rep_e.cfm. Memorandum Proposed procedures for preparing composite speciation profiles using Environment Canada s National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) for stationary sources, prepared by Ying Hsu and Randy Strait of E.H. Pechan Associates, Inc. for David Niemi, Marc Deslauriers, and Lisa Graham of Environment Canada, September 26, 2006.

Examples

if (FALSE) { # Do not run pm <- rnorm(n = 100, mean = 400, sd = 2) df <- speciate(pm, veh = "PC", fuel = "G", eu = "I") dfa <- speciate(pm, spec = "e_eth", veh = "veh", fuel = "G", eu = "Exhaust") dfb <- speciate(pm, spec = "e_tol", veh = "veh", fuel = "G", eu = "Exhaust") dfc <- speciate(pm, spec = "e_so4i") }